Cosmology 101.

site pages

Feel free to browse the site, numerous links to handy articles. These links were chosen as instructional aid to the aspiring Cosmologist.
A recommended Forum to discuss any of these articles is located at or These sites are an excellent resource for asking questions on any physics or related topic.

Site Articles (Articles written by PF and Site members)

Misconceptions (Useful articles to answer various Cosmology Misconceptions) : A thorough write up on the balloon analogy used to describe expansion and the Cosmological Horizon by Brian Powell :"What we have leaned from Observational Cosmology." -A handy write up on observational cosmology in accordance with the LambdaCDM model. :"Expanding Confusion: common misconceptions of cosmological horizons and the superluminal expansion of the Universe" Lineweaver and Davies "Misconceptions about the Big bang" also Lineweaver and Davies "why the prejudice against a constant" "In an expanding universe, what doesn't expand? Richard H. Price, Joseph D. Romano What's in a Name: History and Meanings of the Term "Big Bang" Helge Kragh Is it possible to see the infinite future of the Universe when falling into a black hole?

Training (textbook Style Articles) :"ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY"- A compilation of cosmology by Juan Garcıa-Bellido An overview of Cosmology Julien Lesgourgues "Particle Physics and Inflationary Cosmology" by Andrei Linde" Particle Physics of the Early universe" by Uwe-Jens Wiese Thermodynamics, Big bang Nucleosynthesis "Relativity: The Special and General Theory" by Albert Einstein "Lecture Notes on General Relativity" Matthias Blau "Introduction to Loop Quantum Cosmology by Abhay Ashtekar : "Fields" - A free lengthy technical training manual on classical and quantum fields

Historical article links
Reprint of one of Hubbles papers.
An authorized reprint of Einsteins Special relativity paper.
The "Great debate of the 20's" jubilee reprint article available
Good reference site covering Bells theorem.
good historical coverage of many of the key figures in Cosmology history " “The Waters I am Entering No One yet Has Crossed”: Alexander Friedman and the Origins of Modern Cosmology" written by Ari Belenkiy "The Contribution of V. M. Slipher to the Discovery of the
Expanding Universe" by C. O’Raifeartaigh "foundations of geometry" David Hilbert

Physics Calculators : This handy calculator will make life far easier in understanding the expansion history of the universe. It is easily one of the better online expansion and redshift calculators going.

Special relativity calculator.

Useful Calculus and unit conversion calculator links.


Useful Reference materials "The Cosmic energy inventory" :''Black hole Accretion Disk'' -Handy article on accretion disk measurements provides a technical compilation of measurements involving the disk itself. "why the prejudice against a constant" "On the Cosmological Constant Problems and the Astronomical Evidence for a Homogeneous Energy Density with Negative Pressure" "On the physical basis of cosmic time" "What do we really know about Dark Energy?" by Ruth Durrer "Habitable Zones Around Main-Sequence Stars: New Estimates" Various authors "Distance measures in cosmology" David W. Hogg "Understanding Our Universe: Current Status and Open Issues T. Padmanabhan "Neutron Stars Gordon Baym, Frederick K. Lamb "Large-Scale Structure of the Universe and Cosmological Perturbation Theory F. Bernardeau, S. Colombi, E. Gaztanaga, R. Scoccimarro Black hole evaporation: A paradigm Abhay Ashtekar, Martin Bojowald

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