Early Universe

The early history of the Universe is often called thermal history because the Universe is a dense soup of particles, that have short mean free paths and so interact frequently. This plasma cools down gradually as the Universe expands. Although we cannot see prior to the time of last scattering, research in high energy particle physics and quantum field theories provide us with a means to predict the evolution of particle formation in the early universe.
However no current theory can predict prior to 10-43 seconds. At this point of time any applied mathematics simply do not make sense, hence its considered the point of a singularity state. Numerous pop media articles will have you believe that everything in the universe originated at some infinitely dense point, much like a black-hole singularity. The Big bang model never predicted this nor does it predict how the universe came to be. The big bang model can be described loosely as the expansion history of the universe.

High energy particle physics showed that the first second of the universe can be divided into epochs. These Epochs indicate particular processes in particle development and grand unification of the four forces. When GUT (grand unification theory) states that the forces are combined. What they are really saying is that the energy levels are such that the combined forces are indistinguishable from one another, or in other words there is no means of identifying one force from another. So far there has been no successes in combining gravity into the GUT theories.

So lets take a look at each epoch and describe the processes that occurred during that epoch. Much of this literature will be based on Quantum field theories, as QFT deals extremely well with relativistic particles.

++Planck Epoch
10-43 seconds to 10^^-34 seconds
T ' 1019GeV' 1032K to T ' 1014GeV' 1027K

As shown above the Planck epoch is extremely hot, far hotter than mankind is able to produce even with nuclear reactors. Theories vary as to what occurred during this epoch. According to GUT there is no standard model particles as the temperature is simply too high to allow for their decay. The Planck epoch is in some models governed by the Heisenburg uncertainty principle of energy, given in the form ΔE × Δt ≤ h. Perturbations in quanta allow for virtual particle pair creation and annihilation. In the form of particles and anti-particles, whose ratio is still balanced. Another key note is in GUT during this epoch the 4 forces are treated as unified, with the exception of gravity. There have been some claims that even gravity is unified at this point. This combination is often termed "super gravity".

++Grand unification epoch

Under development

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License